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不銹鋼鑄造中材質疏松的原因及解決方法

   不銹鋼鑄造無論是扁錠還是園錠在生產中經常會出現氣孔和疏松缺陷問題,氣孔和疏松如同孿生姐妹,常常相伴為生,給鋁加工帶來許多麻煩。不銹鋼鑄造組織中存在圓形孔洞稱為氣孔。它是金屬液體在冷卻期間和凝固過程中,析出的氣體存留在鑄錠中形成的氣泡缺陷。疏松是在不銹鋼鑄造組織在凝固的過程中,由于不銹鋼在液態和凝固態的過程中,體積在收縮得不到很好的補充而產生出分散孔洞。氣孔形成的主要因素:在溶解中的熔體的氣體處于飽和狀態,溶體中存在大量非金屬夾渣物,氣體在鑄造的過程中上浮速度慢,則氣泡就會停留在鑄錠中產生氣孔。 

Stainless steel casting slab ingot or garden ingot in production often appear porosity defect and loose, porosity and loose like twin sisters, often accompanied by a living, bring a lot of trouble to aluminum processing. Stainless steel casting organization exists in the circular holes called pores. It is during the cooling and solidification process of liquid metal, the separation of gas remaining in the ingot casting defect formation of bubbles. Osteoporosis is in stainless steel casting organization in the process of solidification, as a result of stainless steel in liquid and solid in the process of coagulation, shrinking volume is not very good supplement and produce scattered holes. Porosity formation: the main factors in the gases dissolved in the melt in saturated state, the solution of a large number of non-metallic slag content, gas in the process of casting to rise slowly, the bubbles will remain the appearance of porosity in ingot casting.

          在分析疏松的原因有幾種情況: 

1.熔體過熱。2.熔體中氣體含量過高。3鑄造溫度過低。4.泠卻強度小.鑄造速度過快。5.漏斗供流不均勻。6.烘爐不徹底.停爐時間過長。7.工具及精煉氣體.溶劑等潮濕或不徹底。8.高鎂合金覆蓋不好。 

不銹鋼鑄造氣孔及疏松是最為常見的缺陷之一,不銹鋼熔煉與鑄造技術(工藝規程)產生;都是圍繞氣孔和疏松缺陷所制定出來的。如何解決氣孔和疏松缺陷問題? 

      采取幾項措施: 

1.是控制化學成分雜質含量(減少非金屬夾雜物)2.是固體料投放改為液體料投放(縮短熔煉時間)3.是加強精煉除氣4.是將原來小園錠規格改為大園錠(以降低鑄造速度,改變過度帶尺寸)結果避免損失。 

氣孔的產生原因: 

1.熔爐大修或者中修.長期停爐后干燥不徹底。2.原材料潮濕.有油污.水份。3.潤滑油質量不好。4.熔體在爐中過熱。5.工具末徹底干燥。6.燃氣水分過大。7.熔煉的時間過長。 

    疏松一般分為兩種:一種是收縮間產生的疏松,一種是末去除溶體氣體形成的疏松。疏松的形成主要因素與熔體的氣體含量與鑄錠成形時過度帶的尺寸.形狀以及結構有關。 

從上述案例看,雖然事件已過去整整三十多年,但是對于我們鋁加工探索與發展提供了非常寶貴的數據和借鑒。 

小結: 

  1. 加強成分雜質的控制,有效減少非金屬夾渣物的增多。

  2. .采用液體供料,縮小了金屬在溶爐停留時間,使溶爐內的氣體在不飽和的作用下得到釋放和分解。

  3. 不銹鋼鑄造溫度采用上限。

  4. 降低鑄造速度改變液穴過渡帶結構,讓剩余的氣體有足夠的上浮空間。

  5. 行之有效的除氣精煉。

  6. 熔鑄工藝技術的制定不是一成不變,在特殊的情況下,果斷采用預案,以防產品質量缺陷的發生。


 1. Strengthen the composition control of impurity, reduce non-metallic slag content increasing. 

2. The liquid feeding, reduce the time spent in metal bath furnace, make the gas inside the bath furnace under the action of unsaturated release and decomposition.

 3. Adopt stainless steel casting temperature limit. 

4. Reduce the casting speed changing fluid hole transition zone structure, make the rest of the gas enough to rise space. 

5. Effective degassing refining.

 6. Set of electroslag casting technology is not a constant, in special cases, the decisive adopts the plan, to prevent the occurrence of product quality defects.

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